Since Hippocrates laid down the fundamental principles of clinical observation of patients in Ancient Greece, medical research has been an important building block in the development of medicine and treatment. It has not been easy and the use of trials involving willing subjects has a huge part to play in the fight against disease and the development of better treatments.
There are several types of research that need to be considered. These include cellular and molecular biology on a bodily level. Included in this is immunology, trying to get the body to react to certain illnesses with our existing antibodies so they do not cancel it out first. The second type is focusing on the mind through using psychology techniques and neuroscience. For information about Administration of medical training, look at www.tidaltraining.co.uk/health-and-social-care-courses/safe-handling-medication-training
The first stage of developing a medical trial falls under the case of the preclinical stage. There is no need to have ethical approval as it sits in the theoretical side. It is done by a team of scientists with a simple remit to get the trials to a testing stage.
The part that humans are required is the clinical research stage. This is highly regulated and ethical and will be conducted out in the field under close supervision of a medical team based in a medical facility or it will be run from a hospital. It will not go ahead unless full clearance has been given by the medical research council and a lot of criteria needs to be passed and debated to get there.